Introduction Feminism brings many things to philosophy including not only a variety of particular moral and political claims, but ways of asking and answering questions, critiques of mainstream philosophical views and methods, and new topics of inquiry. Feminist contributions to and interventions in mainstream philosophical debates are covered in entries under "Feminism, interventions". Entries covered under the rubric "Feminism, topics" concern philosophical issues that arise as feminists articulate accounts of sexism, critique sexist social and cultural practices, and develop alternative visions of a just world. In short, they are philosophical topics that arise within feminism.
Women, on the other hand, are commonly conceived of as acted upon throughout conflict and conflict resolutions. The reality is that women play various roles in war and for different reasons, depending on the conflict.
It is noted that women have actively participated in war since the mid-nineteenth century. This process of eliminating women from war is a tool used to discredit women as agents in the international arena. These scholars will seek to explain why wartime sexual violence is so prevalent through history and today.
Some scholars turn to explanations such as rape as a weapon or as a reward for soldiers during the war.
Others see sexual violence as an inevitable consequence when social restraints are removed. One tradition that exists within the field for this purpose is that of feminist anti-militarism. This is a stance within Feminist International Relations that opposes weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear weaponry, and holds gender accountable in part for the propagation of militarism.
As disarmament could be perceived as emasculatory, states are less likely to disarm; consequently, militarism becomes normalized, downplayed, and more likely to incite warfare. The decision by NATO to base ground cruise missiles at Greenham Common initiated a response from women largely associated with various feminist and anti-nuclear groups.
Their opposition to such militarism was demonstrated in the persistence of peace camps, demonstrations and other forms of resistance for the following two decades nat.
Gender Theory and Feminisms[ edit ] Gender theory highlights the limitations of linguistic categories,  asserts the significance of intersectionality,  values concrete cultural context over universalisms and essentialisms for example, the notion of universal patriarchy rigorously problematizes sex and gender binaries,  recounts and accounts for the history of sex and gender relations,  and deals directly with other theoretical strains such as structuralism,  post-structuralism,  socialism,  and psychoanalysis.
Difference feminism focusses on empowering women in particular through specific designs, implementations, and evaluations of policies that account for the material and cultural differences between men and women and their significance. Poststructuralist feminism prioritizes difference and diversity to the extent that it recognizes all identities as absolutely contingent social constructions.
In order to disrupt this marginalization, feminists must challenge the very assumptions that construct our ideas of identity and citizenship.
Relating to gender, rationalist feminism explores not only how war arises, but specifically how gender affects the causes, likelihood and outcome of conflict.
Rationalist feminists have, broadly, two strains of research: Quantitative foreign policy - may, for example, explore the correlation between gender equality and likelihood of war, or the gender gap on foreign policy opinions.
Institutional politics describes the political, material, bureaucratic, and organizational relationships and conventions that govern administrative institutions.
Women are often viewed as being a caring nurturer in comparison to most men being viewed as aggressive and brash. The media focuses far more on physical appearance and lifestyle, rather than the prominent political questions of the campaign, for female candidates.
These kinds of coverage discourage voters from voting or contributing to the campaigns of female candidates, and moreover, discourage women from entering into a campaign.
Through a feminist lens of international relations however, we may understand the systemic nature of these perceptions of the relationships between bodies and identities in order to discount popular dialogue, and find places for women within high-politics.
Robert Keohane has suggested that feminists formulate verifiable problems, collect data, and proceed only scientifically when attempting to solve issues.How Significant is the Contribution of Feminism to the Discipline of IR as a Whole?
Introduction. An evaluation of the contribution of feminist International Relations (IR) theory to the discipline as a whole is fraught with complexities; not only is feminist discourse a multifaceted branch of competing theories employing separate epistemologies, it is also a somewhat marginalised field within.
Liberal feminism asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform. It is an individualistic form of feminism and feminist theory, which focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
Civic nationalism; Classical liberalism; Conservative liberalism; Democratic liberalism; Green liberalism; Liberal feminism.
Equity feminism; Liberal autocracy. Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support civil rights, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion.
[Content warning: Politics, religion, social justice, spoilers for “The Secret of Father Brown”. This isn’t especially original to me and I don’t claim anything more than to be explaining and rewording things I have heard from a bunch of other people.
I. Introduction Feminism brings many things to philosophy including not only a variety of particular moral and political claims, but ways of asking and answering questions, critiques of mainstream philosophical views and methods, and new topics of inquiry.