Invention and electricity

Some give credit to Benjamin Franklin for discovering electricity, but his experiments only helped establish the connection between lightning and electricity, nothing more. The truth about the discovery of electricity is a bit more complex than a man flying his kite. It actually goes back more than two thousand years. In about BC, the Ancient Greeks discovered that rubbing fur on amber fossilized tree resin caused an attraction between the two — and so what the Greeks discovered was actually static electricity.

Invention and electricity

If a similar ball is charged by the same glass rod, it is found to repel the first: Two balls that are charged with a rubbed amber rod also repel each other.

However, if one ball is charged by the glass rod, and the other by an amber rod, the two balls are found to attract each other. These phenomena were investigated in the late eighteenth century by Charles-Augustin de Coulombwho deduced that charge manifests itself in two opposing forms.

This discovery led to the well-known axiom: The magnitude of the electromagnetic force, whether attractive or repulsive, is given by Coulomb's lawwhich relates the force to the product of the charges and has an inverse-square relation to the distance between them.

Electric charge gives rise to and interacts with the electromagnetic forceone of the four fundamental forces of nature. The most familiar carriers of electrical charge are the electron and proton. Experiment has shown charge to be a conserved quantitythat is, the net charge within an electrically isolated system will always remain constant regardless of any changes taking place within that system.

The charge on electrons and protons is opposite in sign, hence an amount of charge may be expressed as being either negative or positive.

Invention and electricity

By convention, the charge carried by electrons is deemed negative, and that by protons positive, a custom that originated with the work of Benjamin Franklin. Charge is possessed not just by matterbut also by antimattereach antiparticle bearing an equal and opposite charge to its corresponding particle.

Electric current The movement of electric charge is known as an electric currentthe intensity of which is usually measured in amperes. Current can consist of any moving charged particles; most commonly these are electrons, but any charge in motion constitutes a current.

Electric current can flow through some things, electrical conductorsbut will not flow through an electrical insulator. Current defined in this manner is called conventional current. The motion of negatively charged electrons around an electric circuitone of the most familiar forms of current, is thus deemed positive in the opposite direction to that of the electrons.

The positive-to-negative convention is widely used to simplify this situation. An electric arc provides an energetic demonstration of electric current The process by which electric current passes through a material is termed electrical conductionand its nature varies with that of the charged particles and the material through which they are travelling.

Examples of electric currents include metallic conduction, where electrons flow through a conductor such as metal, and electrolysiswhere ions charged atoms flow through liquids, or through plasmas such as electrical sparks.

While the particles themselves can move quite slowly, sometimes with an average drift velocity only fractions of a millimetre per second, [27]: That water could be decomposed by the current from a voltaic pile was discovered by Nicholson and Carlisle ina process now known as electrolysis.

Their work was greatly expanded upon by Michael Faraday in Current through a resistance causes localised heating, an effect James Prescott Joule studied mathematically in The level of electromagnetic emissions generated by electric arcing is high enough to produce electromagnetic interferencewhich can be detrimental to the workings of adjacent equipment.

These terms refer to how the current varies in time. Direct current, as produced by example from a battery and required by most electronic devices, is a unidirectional flow from the positive part of a circuit to the negative.Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our .

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Hardly a week passes without some high-profile court case that features intellectual property at its center. But how did the belief that one could own an idea come about?

And how did that belief . The Story: By the time of Edison's lamp invention, gas lighting was a mature, well-established industry. The gas infrastructure was in place, franchises had been granted, and manufacturing facilities for both gas and equipment were in profitable operation.

Feb 20,  · Electricity is a force of nature, not an invention. It was recognized (some say, "discovered") in many ways by many people over the centuries in the forms of static electricity, electric eels, catfish and lightning (a really, really BIG form of static electricity discharge.).

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