So how do researchers come up with the idea for a research project? Probably one of the most common sources of research ideas is the experience of practical problems in the field. Many researchers are directly engaged in social, health or human service program implementation and come up with their ideas based on what they see happening around them. Others aren't directly involved in service contexts, but work with or survey people who are in order to learn what needs to be better understood.
Goal formulation Often the first step in problem-dolving is to simplify the performance measure that the agent is trying to maximize. Formally, a "goal" is a set of desirable world-states. Be sure to notice and understand the difference between a "goal" and a description OF a goal.
Technically "reach Bucharest airport" is a description of a goal. Problem formulation After goal formulation, the agent must do problem formulation. This means choosing a relevant set of states, operators for moving from one state to another, the goal test function and the path cost function.
The relevant set of states should include the current state, Problem formulation is the initial state, and at least one! The operators correspond to "imaginary" actions that the agent might take. The goal test function is a function which determines if a single state is a goal state.
The path cost is the sum of the cost of individual actions along a path from one state to another. Types of problems Consider the vacuum cleaner world.
Problem formulation that our intelligent agent is a robot vacuum cleaner. Let's suppose that the world has just two rooms. The robot can be in either room and there can be dirt in zero, one, or two rooms.
The operators are "move left", "move right", and "vacuum". Let's draw the state space: Multiple state problems Suppose that the robot has no sensor that can tell it which room it is in and it doesn't know where it is initially.
Then it must consider sets of possible states. Notice that regardless of what the initial state is, the sequence of actions [right,vacuum,left,vacuum] ends up in a goal state.
Contingency problems Suppose that the "vacuum" action sometimes actually deposits dirt on the carpet--but only if the carpet is already clean! Now [right,vacuum,left,vacuum] is NOT a correct plan, because one room might be clean originally, but them become dirty.
An agent for this environment MUST have a sensor and it must combine decision-making, sensing, and execution. This is called interleaving. Exploration problems So far we have assumed that the robot is ignorant of which rooms are dirty today, but that the robot knows how many rooms there are and what the effect of each available action is.
Suppose the robot is completely ignorant. Then it must take actions for the purpose of acquiring knowledge about their effects, NOT just for their contribution towards achieving a goal.
This is called "exploration" and the agent must do learning about the environment. Measuring performance With any intelligent agent, we want it to find a good solution and not spend forever doing it.
The interesting quantities are, therefore, the search cost--how long the agent takes to come up with the solution to the problem, and the path cost--how expensive the actions in the solution are.
The total cost of the solution is the sum of the above two quantities. Choosing states and actions The secret of success for any intelligent agent is to choose state descriptions and actions well. The keyword is abstraction.
Abstraction means leaving out details about the world which are irrelevant such as the scenery or how hungry the driver is in the case of driving from Arad to Bucharest to get a new passport.For the purposes of scoping, problem formulation and risk evaluation, EPA has adopted the definition of asbestos as defined by TSCA Title II (added to TSCA in ), Section as the “asbestiform varieties.
The problem formulation consists of just one sentence and should make it clear to everyone what research problem, you aim to address, to whom and where it is relevant. In other words, the problem formulation is the heart (or core) of your thesis to which you should always return if you lose track during your further research and writing process.
The nursing industry figures that this is a problem that costs tens of millions of dollars annually in increased health care.
And, the health care industry has developed a number of approaches, many of them educational, to try to reduce the scope and cost of the problem.
Problem formulation After goal formulation, the agent must do problem formulation. This means choosing a relevant set of states, operators for moving from one state to another, the goal test function and the path cost function.
Definitions of problem formulation, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of problem formulation, analogical dictionary of problem formulation (English). Problem Formulation (a.k.a. Problem Structuring or Problem Definition) is the process by which the Universe of Discourse (problem domain) is analyzed to create a formulated problem, which is sufficiently well defined to enable specific action.