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Historical prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes The earliest known cases of human HIV infection have been linked to western equatorial Africa, probably in southeast Cameroon where groups of the central common chimpanzee live.
The hunters then became infected with HIV and passed on the disease to other humans through bodily fluid contamination. This theory is known as the "Bushmeat theory". One of the most formative explanations is the poverty that dramatically impacts The issue of aids in zambia daily lives of Africans.
A Challenge to Our Thinking, describes how "Poverty has accompanying side-effects, such as prostitution i. Trade along the rivers could have spread the virus, which built up slowly in the human population.
By the s, about 2, people in Africa may have had HIV,  including people in Kinshasa whose tissue samples from and have been preserved and studied retrospectively. The virus multiplies in the body until it causes immune system damage, leading to diseases of the AIDS syndrome.
In the s it spread silently across the globe until it became a pandemic, or widespread. Some areas of the world were already significantly impacted by AIDS, while in others the epidemic was just beginning.
The virus is transmitted by bodily fluid contact including the exchange of sexual fluids, by blood, from mother to child in the womb, and during delivery or breastfeeding. Then in andheterosexual Africans also were diagnosed.
Because public health authorities perceived AIDS to be an urban phenomenon associated with prostitution, they believed that the majority of Africans who lived in "traditional" rural areas would be spared.
They believed that the heterosexual epidemic could be contained by focusing prevention efforts on persuading the so-called core transmitters—people such as sex workers and truck drivers, known to have multiple sex partners—to use condoms.
These factors retarded prevention campaigns in many countries for more than a decade. AIDS was at first considered a disease of gay men and drug addicts, but in Africa it took off among the general population. As a result, those involved in the fight against HIV began to emphasize aspects such as preventing transmission from mother to child, or the relationship between HIV and poverty, inequality of the sexes, and so on, rather than emphasizing the need to prevent transmission by unsafe sexual practices or drug injection.
This change in emphasis resulted in more funding, but was not effective in preventing a drastic rise in HIV prevalence. Almost 1 million of those patients were treated in Public education initiatives[ edit ] Numerous public education initiatives have been launched to curb the spread of HIV in Africa.
The role of stigma[ edit ] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions.
This is due to many factors such as a lack of understanding of the disease, lack of access to treatment, the media, knowing that AIDS is incurable, and prejudices brought on by a cultures beliefs. The belief that only homosexuals could contract the diseases was later debunked as the number of heterosexual couples living with HIV increased.
Unfortunately there were other rumors being spread by elders in Cameroon. They also claimed if a man was infected as a result of having sexual contact with a Fulani woman, only a Fulani healer could treat him". Because of this belief that men can only get HIV from women many "women are not free to speak of their HIV status to their partners for fear of violence".
Unfortunately This stigma makes it very challenging for Sub-Saharan Africans to share that they have HIV because they are afraid of being an outcast from their friends and family.
The common belief is that once you have HIV you are destined to die. People seclude themselves based on these beliefs. They don't tell their family and live with guilt and fear because of HIV. This group of individuals under fear of suspicion may avoid being mistakingly identified as stigmatized by simply avoiding HARHS utilization.
The rewards of being considered normal' in the context of high-HIV-prevalence Sub-Saharan Africa are varied and great Other potential rewards of being considered normal include avoidance of being associated with promiscuity or prostitution, avoidance of emotional, social and physical isolation and avoidance of being blamed for others' illness" Using different prevention strategies in combination is not a new idea.Major problems facing Zambia today Extreme poverty and hunger remain a top issue in Zambia today.
Poverty especially in rural areas is driving many children of school-going age out of school. More than , people were living with HIV/AIDS in with about 45, deaths recorded within the same year. Natural hazards such as. HIV and AIDS social issues In many regions, social issues increase the risk of HIV infection making it difficult to tackle the global HIV epidemic effectively.
Certain groups of . The African Regional Health Report Narrowing the knowledge gap in sub-saharan Africa: This report provides an assessment of the current status and trends in health in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region, which consists of 47 of the 54 countries on the African continent and is one of the six regions of WHO.
This paper reports on an assessment conducted in of the global progress towards achieving the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which showed disparities, with sub-Saharan Africa trailing the rest of the developing world.
The Economic Impact of AIDS in Namibia by Lori Bollinger John Stover September where food security has been a continuous issue because of drought, any declines in household production can have serious consequences. Additionally, a loss of agricultural which is close to the borders with Zambia, Zimbabwe, and.
Unprotected heterosexual sex and mother-to-child transmission are the primary modes of HIV infection in Zambia’s epidemic. There are still many misconceptions about HIV and AIDS in Zambia.
campaigns have been implemented to raise awareness of this issue.